Human Genome Project
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research
project with a primary goal to determine the sequence of chemical base
pairs which make up DNA and to identify and map the approximately
20,000–25,000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and
project began in 1990 and was initially headed by James D. Watson at
the U.S. National Institutes of Health. A working draft of the genome
was released in 2000 and a complete one in 2003, with further analysis
still being published. A parallel project was conducted outside of
government by the Celera Corporation. Most of the government-sponsored
sequencing was performed in universities and research centers from the
United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, China,
India, Canada, and New Zealand. The mapping of human genes is an
important step in the development of medicines and other aspects of
the objective of the Human Genome Project is to understand the genetic
makeup of the human species, the project has also focused on several
other nonhuman organisms such as E. coli, the fruit fly, and the
laboratory mouse. It remains one of the largest single investigational
projects in modern science.
Human Genome Project originally aimed to map the nucleotides contained
in a human haploid reference genome (more than three billion). Several
groups have announced efforts to extend this to diploid human genomes
including the International HapMap Project, Applied Biosystems,
Perlegen, Illumina, JCVI, Personal Genome Project, and Roche-454.
"genome" of any given individual (except for identical twins and cloned
organisms) is unique; mapping "the human genome" involves sequencing
multiple variations of each gene. The project did not study the entire
DNA found in human cells; some heterochromatic areas (about 8% of the
total genome) remain un-sequenced.
project began with the culmination of several years of work supported
by the United States Department of Energy, in particular workshops in
1984 and 1986 and a subsequent initiative of the US Department of
Energy. This 1987 report stated boldly, "The ultimate goal of this
initiative is to understand the human genome" and "knowledge of the
human as necessary to the continuing progress of medicine and other
health sciences as knowledge of human anatomy has been for the present
state of medicine." Candidate technologies were already being
considered for the proposed undertaking at least as early as 1985.
D. Watson was head of the National Center for Human Genome Research at
the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States starting
from 1988. Largely due to his disagreement with his boss, Bernadine
Healy, over the issue of patenting genes, Watson was forced to resign
in 1992. He was replaced by Francis Collins in April 1993, and the name
of the Center was changed to the National Human Genome Research
Institute (NHGRI) in 1997.
$3-billion project was formally founded in 1990 by the United States
Department of Energy and the U.S. National Institutes of Health, and
was expected to take 15 years. In addition to the United States, the
international consortium comprised geneticists in the United Kingdom,
France, Germany, Japan, China, and India.
to widespread international cooperation and advances in the field of
genomics (especially in sequence analysis), as well as major advances
in computing technology, a 'rough draft' of the genome was finished in
2000 (announced jointly by then US president Bill Clinton and the
British Prime Minister Tony Blair on June 26, 2000). This first
available rough draft assembly of the genome was completed by the UCSC
Genome Bioinformatics Group, primarily led by then graduate student Jim
Kent. Ongoing sequencing led to the announcement of the essentially
complete genome in April 2003, 2 years earlier than planned. In May
2006, another milestone was passed on the way to completion of the
project, when the sequence of the last chromosome was published in the
are multiple definitions of the "complete sequence of the human
genome". According to some of these definitions, the genome has already
been completely sequenced, and according to other definitions, the
genome has yet to be completely sequenced. There have been multiple
popular press articles reporting that the genome was "complete." The
genome has been completely sequenced using the definition employed by
the International Human Genome Project. A graphical history of the
human genome project shows that most of the human genome was complete
by the end of 2003. However, there are a number of regions of the human
genome that can be considered unfinished:
the central regions of each chromosome, known as centromeres, are
highly repetitive DNA sequences that are difficult to sequence using
current technology. The centromeres are millions (possibly tens of
millions) of base pairs long, and for the most part these are entirely
the ends of the chromosomes, called telomeres, are also highly
repetitive, and for most of the 46 chromosome ends these too are
incomplete. It is not known precisely how much sequence remains before
the telomeres of each chromosome are reached, but as with the
centromeres, current technological restraints are prohibitive.
there are several loci in each individual's genome that contain members
of multigene families that are difficult to disentangle with shotgun
sequencing methods – these multigene families often encode proteins
important for immune functions.
than these regions, there remain a few dozen gaps scattered around the
genome, some of them rather large, but there is hope that all these
will be closed in the next couple of years.
summary: the best estimates of total genome size indicate that about
92.3% of the genome has been completed and it is likely that the
centromeres and telomeres will remain un-sequenced until new technology
is developed that facilitates their sequencing. Most of the remaining
DNA is highly repetitive and unlikely to contain genes, but it cannot
be truly known until it is entirely sequenced. Understanding the
functions of all the genes and their regulation is far from complete.
The roles of junk DNA, the evolution of the genome, the differences
between individuals, and many other questions are still the subject of
intense interest by laboratories all over the world.
sequence of the human DNA is stored in databases available to anyone on
the Internet. The U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information
(and sister organizations in Europe and Japan) house the gene sequence
in a database known as GenBank, along with sequences of known and
hypothetical genes and proteins. Other organizations such as the
University of California, Santa Cruz, and Ensembl present additional
data and annotation and powerful tools for visualizing and searching
it. Computer programs have been developed to analyze the data, because
the data itself is difficult to interpret without such programs.
process of identifying the boundaries between genes and other features
in raw DNA sequence is called genome annotation and is the domain of
bioinformatics. While expert biologists make the best annotators, their
work proceeds slowly, and computer programs are increasingly used to
meet the high-throughput demands of genome sequencing projects. The
best current technologies for annotation make use of statistical models
that take advantage of parallels between DNA sequences and human
language, using concepts from computer science such as formal grammars.
often overlooked, goal of the HGP is the study of its ethical, legal,
and social implications. It is important to research these issues and
find the most appropriate solutions before they become large dilemmas
whose effect will manifest in the form of major political
humans have unique gene sequences. Therefore the data published by the
HGP does not represent the exact sequence of each and every
individual's genome. It is the combined "reference genome" of a small
number of anonymous donors. The HGP genome is a scaffold for future
work in identifying differences among individuals. Most of the current
effort in identifying differences among individuals involves
single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the HapMap.
Key findings of the draft (2001) and complete (2004) genome sequences include
There are approx. 24,000 genes in human beings, the same range as in
mice and twice that of roundworms. Understanding how these genes
express themselves will provide clues to how diseases are
2. Between 1.1% to 1.4% of the genome's sequence codes for proteins
The human genome has significantly more segmental duplications (near
identical, repeated sections of DNA repeated) than other mammalian
genomes. These sections may underlie the creation of new
4. At the time when the draft sequence was published less than 7% of protein families appeared to be vertebrate specific
How it was accomplished
The first printout of the human genome to be presented as a series of books, displayed at the Wellcome Collection, London
Human Genome Project was started in 1989 with the goal of sequencing
and identifying all three billion chemical units in the human genetic
instruction set, finding the genetic roots of disease and then
developing treatments. With the sequence in hand, the next step was to
identify the genetic variants that increase the risk for common
diseases like cancer and diabetes.
was far too expensive at that time to think of sequencing patients’
whole genomes. So the National Institutes of Health embraced the idea
for a "shortcut", which was to look just at sites on the genome where
many people have a variant DNA unit. The theory behind the shortcut was
that since the major diseases are common, so too would be the genetic
variants that caused them. Natural selection keeps the human genome
free of variants that damage health before children are grown, the
theory held, but fails against variants that strike later in life,
allowing them to become quite common. (In 2002 the National Institutes
of Health started a $138 million project called the HapMap to catalog
the common variants in European, East Asian and African genomes.)
genome was broken into smaller pieces; approximately 150,000 base pairs
in length. These pieces were then ligated into a type of vector known
as "bacterial artificial chromosomes", or BACs, which are derived from
bacterial chromosomes which have been genetically engineered. The
vectors containing the genes can be inserted into bacteria where they
are copied by the bacterial DNA replication machinery. Each of these
pieces was then sequenced separately as a small "shotgun" project and
then assembled. The larger, 150,000 base pairs go together to create
chromosomes. This is known as the "hierarchical shotgun" approach,
because the genome is first broken into relatively large chunks, which
are then mapped to chromosomes before being selected for sequencing.
came from the US government through the National Institutes of Health
in the United States, and the UK charity, the Wellcome Trust, who
funded the Sanger Institute (then the Sanger Centre) in Great Britain,
as well as numerous other groups from around the world.
Human Genome Project has been called a Mega Project because of the following factors:
The human genome has approx. 3.3 billion base-pairs; if the cost of
sequencing is US $3 per base-pair, then the approx. cost will be US $10
If the sequence obtained were to be stored in a typed form in books and
if each page contains 1000 letters and each book contains 1000 pages,
then 3300 such books would be needed to store the complete information.
if expressed in computer storage units (3.3 billion base-pairs) x (2
bits per pair) = 825 megabytes of raw data. Which is about the same
size of one music CD. If further compressed, this data can be expected
to fit in less than 20 Megabytes.
1998, a similar, privately funded quest was launched by the American
researcher Craig Venter, and his firm Celera Genomics. Venter was a
scientist at the NIH during the early 1990s when the project was
initiated. The $300,000,000 Celera effort was intended to proceed at a
faster pace and at a fraction of the cost of the roughly $3 billion
publicly funded project.
used a technique called whole genome shotgun sequencing, employing
pairwise end sequencing, which had been used to sequence bacterial
genomes of up to six million base pairs in length, but not for anything
nearly as large as the three billion base pair human genome.
initially announced that it would seek patent protection on "only
200–300" genes, but later amended this to seeking "intellectual
property protection" on "fully-characterized important structures"
amounting to 100–300 targets. The firm eventually filed preliminary
("place-holder") patent applications on 6,500 whole or partial genes.
Celera also promised to publish their findings in accordance with the
terms of the 1996 "Bermuda Statement," by releasing new data annually
(the HGP released its new data daily), although, unlike the publicly
funded project, they would not permit free redistribution or scientific
use of the data. The publicly funded competitor UC Santa Cruz was
compelled to publish the first draft of the human genome before Celera
for this reason. On July 7, 2000, the UCSC Genome Bioinformatics Group
released a first working draft on the web. The scientific community
downloaded one-half trillion bytes of information from the UCSC genome
server in the first 24 hours of free and unrestricted access to the
first ever assembled blueprint of our human species..
March 2000, President Clinton announced that the genome sequence could
not be patented, and should be made freely available to all
researchers. The statement sent Celera's stock plummeting and dragged
down the biotechnology-heavy Nasdaq. The biotechnology sector lost
about $50 billion in market capitalization in two days.
the working draft was announced in June 2000, it was not until February
2001 that Celera and the HGP scientists published details of their
drafts. Special issues of Nature (which published the publicly funded
project's scientific paper) and Science (which published Celera's
paper) described the methods used to produce the draft sequence and
offered analysis of the sequence. These drafts covered about 83% of the
genome (90% of the euchromatic regions with 150,000 gaps and the order
and orientation of many segments not yet established). In February
2001, at the time of the joint publications, press releases announced
that the project had been completed by both groups. Improved drafts
were announced in 2003 and 2005, filling in to ≈92% of the sequence
competition proved to be very good for the project, spurring the public
groups to modify their strategy in order to accelerate progress. The
rivals at UC Santa Cruz initially agreed to pool their data, but the
agreement fell apart when Celera refused to deposit its data in the
unrestricted public database GenBank. Celera had incorporated the
public data into their genome, but forbade the public effort to use
is the most well known of many international genome projects aimed at
sequencing the DNA of a specific organism. While the human DNA sequence
offers the most tangible benefits, important developments in biology
and medicine are predicted as a result of the sequencing of model
organisms, including mice, fruit flies, zebrafish, yeast, nematodes,
plants, and many microbial organisms and parasites.
2004, researchers from the International Human Genome Sequencing
Consortium (IHGSC) of the HGP announced a new estimate of 20,000 to
25,000 genes in the human genome.Previously 30,000 to 40,000 had been
predicted, while estimates at the start of the project reached up to as
high as 2,000,000. The number continues to fluctuate and it is now
expected that it will take many years to agree on a precise value for
the number of genes in the human genome.
For more details on this topic, see History of genetics.
1976, the genome of the RNA virus Bacteriophage MS2 was the first
complete genome to be determined, by Walter Fiers and his team at the
University of Ghent (Ghent, Belgium).The idea for the shotgun technique
came from the use of an algorithm that combined sequence information
from many small fragments of DNA to reconstruct a genome. This
technique was pioneered by Frederick Sanger to sequence the genome of
the Phage Φ-X174, a virus (bacteriophage) that primarily infects
bacteria that was the first fully sequenced genome (DNA-sequence) in
1977. The technique was called shotgun sequencing because the genome
was broken into millions of pieces as if it had been blasted with a
shotgun. In order to scale up the method, both the sequencing and
genome assembly had to be automated, as they were in the 1980s.
techniques were shown applicable to sequencing of the first free-living
bacterial genome (1.8 million base pairs) of Haemophilus influenzae in
1995 and the first animal genome (~100 Mbp) It involved the use of
automated sequencers, longer individual sequences using approximately
500 base pairs at that time. Paired sequences separated by a fixed
distance of around 2000 base pairs which were critical elements
enabling the development of the first genome assembly programs for
reconstruction of large regions of genomes (aka 'contigs').
years later, in 1998, the announcement by the newly-formed Celera
Genomics that it would scale up the pairwise end sequencing method to
the human genome was greeted with skepticism in some circles. The
shotgun technique breaks the DNA into fragments of various sizes,
ranging from 2,000 to 300,000 base pairs in length, forming what is
called a DNA "library". Using an automated DNA sequencer the DNA is
read in 800bp lengths from both ends of each fragment. Using a complex
genome assembly algorithm and a supercomputer, the pieces are combined
and the genome can be reconstructed from the millions of short, 800
base pair fragments. The success of both the public and privately
funded effort hinged upon a new, more highly automated capillary DNA
sequencing machine, called the Applied Biosystems 3700, that ran the
DNA sequences through an extremely fine capillary tube rather than a
flat gel. Even more critical was the development of a new, larger-scale
genome assembly program, which could handle the 30–50 million sequences
that would be required to sequence the entire human genome with this
method. At the time, such a program did not exist. One of the first
major projects at Celera Genomics was the development of this
assembler, which was written in parallel with the construction of a
large, highly automated genome sequencing factory. Development of the
assembler was led by Brian Ramos. The first version of this assembler
was demonstrated in 2000, when the Celera team joined forces with
Professor Gerald Rubin to sequence the fruit fly Drosophila
melanogaster using the whole-genome shotgun method. At 130 million base
pairs, it was at least 10 times larger than any genome previously
shotgun assembled. One year later, the Celera team published their
assembly of the three billion base pair human genome.
Human Genome Project was a 13 year old mega project, that was launched
in the year 1990 and completed in 2003. This project is closely
associated to the branch of biology called Bio-informatics. The human
genome project international consortium announced the publication of a
draft sequence and analysis of the human genome—the genetic blueprint
for the human being. An American company—Celera, led by Craig Venter
and the other huge international collaboration of distinguished
scientists led by Francis Collins, director, National Human Genome
Research Institute, U.S., both published their findings.
Mega Project is co-ordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the
National Institute of Health. During the early years of the project,
the Wellcome Trust (U.K.) became a major partner, other countries like
Japan, Germany, China and France contributed significantly. Already the
atlas has revealed some starting facts. The two factors that made this
project a success are:
Genetic Engineering Techniques, with which it is possible to isolate and clone any segment of DNA.
Availability of simple and fast technologies, to determining the DNA sequences.
the most complex organisms, human beings were expected to have more
than 100,000 genes or combination of DNA that provides commands for
every characteristics of the body. Instead their studies show that
humans have only 30,000 genes – around the same as mice, three times as
many as flies, and only five times more than bacteria. Scientist told
that not only are the numbers similar, the genes themselves, baring a
few, are alike in mice and men. In a companion volume to the Book of
Life, scientists have created a catalogue of 1.4 million single-letter
differences, or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) – and specified
their exact locations in the human genome. This SNP map, the world's
largest publicly available catalogue of SNP's, promises to
revolutionize both mapping diseases and tracing human history. The
sequence information from the consortium has been immediately and
freely released to the world, with no restrictions on its use or
redistribution. The information is scanned daily by scientists in
academia and industry, as well as commercial database companies,
providing key information services to bio-technologists. Already, many
genes have been identified from the genome sequence, including more
than 30 that play a direct role in human diseases. By dating the three
millions repeat elements and examining the pattern of interspersed
repeats on the Y-chromosome, scientists estimated the relative mutation
rates in the X and the Y chromosomes and in the male and the female
germ lines. They found that the ratio of mutations in male Vs female is
2:1. Scientists point to several possible reasons for the higher
mutation rate in the male germ line, including the fact that there are
a greater number of cell divisions involved in the formation of sperm
than in the formation of eggs.
IHGSC used pair-end sequencing plus whole-genome shotgun mapping of
large (≈100 Kbp) plasmid clones and shotgun sequencing of smaller
plasmid sub-clones plus a variety of other mapping data to orient and
check the assembly of each human chromosome.
Celera group emphasized the importance of the “whole-genome shotgun”
sequencing method, relying on sequence information to orient and locate
their fragments within the chromosome. However they used the publicly
available data from HGP to assist in the assembly and orientation
process, raising concerns that the Celera sequence was not
the IHGSC international public-sector Human Genome Project (HGP),
researchers collected blood (female) or sperm (male) samples from a
large number of donors. Only a few of many collected samples were
processed as DNA resources. Thus the donor identities were protected so
neither donors nor scientists could know whose DNA was sequenced. DNA
clones from many different libraries were used in the overall project,
with most of those libraries being created by Dr. Pieter J. de Jong. It
has been informally reported, and is well known in the genomics
community, that much of the DNA for the public HGP came from a single
anonymous male donor from Buffalo, New York (code name RP11).
scientists used white blood cells from the blood of two male and two
female donors (randomly selected from 20 of each) -- each donor
yielding a separate DNA library. One of these libraries (RP11) was used
considerably more than others, due to quality considerations. One minor
technical issue is that male samples contain just over half as much DNA
from the sex chromosomes (one X chromosome and one Y chromosome)
compared to female samples (which contain two X chromosomes). The other
22 chromosomes (the autosomes) are the same for both genders.
the main sequencing phase of the HGP has been completed, studies of DNA
variation continue in the International HapMap Project, whose goal is
to identify patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) groups
(called haplotypes, or “haps”). The DNA samples for the HapMap came
from a total of 270 individuals: Yoruba people in Ibadan, Nigeria;
Japanese people in Tokyo; Han Chinese in Beijing; and the French Centre
d’Etude du Polymorphisms Humain (CEf) resource, which consisted of
residents of the United States having ancestry from Western and
the Celera Genomics private-sector project, DNA from five different
individuals were used for sequencing. The lead scientist of Celera
Genomics at that time, Craig Venter, later acknowledged (in a public
letter to the journal Science) that his DNA was one of 21 samples in
the pool, five of which were selected for use.
September 4, 2007, a team led by Craig Venter published his complete
DNA sequence, unveiling the six-billion-nucleotide genome of a single
individual for the first time.
work on interpretation of genome data is still in its initial stages.
It is anticipated that detailed knowledge of the human genome will
provide new avenues for advances in medicine and biotechnology. Clear
practical results of the project emerged even before the work was
finished. For example, a number of companies, such as Myriad Genetics
started offering easy ways to administer genetic tests that can show
predisposition to a variety of illnesses, including breast cancer,
disorders of hemostasis, cystic fibrosis, liver diseases and many
others. Also, the etiologies for cancers, Alzheimer's disease and other
areas of clinical interest are considered likely to benefit from genome
information and possibly may lead in the long term to significant
advances in their management.
are also many tangible benefits for biological scientists. For example,
a researcher investigating a certain form of cancer may have narrowed
down his/her search to a particular gene. By visiting the human genome
database on the World Wide Web, this researcher can examine what other
scientists have written about this gene, including (potentially) the
three-dimensional structure of its product, its function(s), its
evolutionary relationships to other human genes, or to genes in mice or
yeast or fruit flies, possible detrimental mutations, interactions with
other genes, body tissues in which this gene is activated, diseases
associated with this gene or other datatypes.
deeper understanding of the disease processes at the level of molecular
biology may determine new therapeutic procedures. Given the established
importance of DNA in molecular biology and its central role in
determining the fundamental operation of cellular processes, it is
likely that expanded knowledge in this area will facilitate medical
advances in numerous areas of clinical interest that may not have been
possible without them.
analysis of similarities between DNA sequences from different organisms
is also opening new avenues in the study of evolution. In many cases,
evolutionary questions can now be framed in terms of molecular biology;
indeed, many major evolutionary milestones (the emergence of the
ribosome and organelles, the development of embryos with body plans,
the vertebrate immune system) can be related to the molecular level.
Many questions about the similarities and differences between humans
and our closest relatives (the primates, and indeed the other mammals)
are expected to be illuminated by the data from this project.
Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), spinoff research aimed at
mapping the DNA that varies between human ethnic groups, which was
rumored to have been halted, actually did continue and to date has
yielded new conclusions. In the future, HGDP could
possibly expose new data in disease surveillance, human development and
anthropology. HGDP could unlock secrets behind and create new
strategies for managing the vulnerability of ethnic groups to certain
diseases (see race in biomedicine). It could also show how human
populations have adapted to these vulnerabilities.
Advantages of Human Genome Project:
Knowledge of the effects of variation of DNA among individuals can
revolutionize the ways to diagnose, treat and even prevent a number of
diseases that affects the human beings. It provides clues to the understanding of human biology.
biologists, the genome has yielded one insightful surprise after
another. But the primary goal of the Human Genome Project — to ferret
out the genetic roots of common diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s
and then generate treatments — has been largely elusive.
sign of the genome’s limited use for medicine so far was a recent test
of genetic predictions for heart disease. A medical team from Brigham
and Women’s Hospital in Boston collected 101 genetic variants that had
been statistically linked to heart disease in various genome-scanning
studies. But the variants turned out to have no value in forecasting
disease among 19,000 women who had been followed for 12 years. The
old-fashioned method of taking a family history was a better guide.
pharmaceutical industry has spent billions of dollars to reap genomic
secrets and is starting to bring several genome-guided drugs to market.
While drug companies continue to pour huge amounts of money into genome
research, it has become clear that the genetics of most diseases are
more complex than anticipated and that it will take many more years
before new treatments may be able to transform medicine.
last decade has brought a flood of discoveries of disease-causing
mutations in the human genome. But with most diseases, the findings
have explained only a small part of the risk of getting the disease.
And many of the genetic variants linked to diseases, some
scientists[who?] have begun to fear, could be statistical illusions.
the HapMap catalog of genetic variations, studies were conducted to see
if any of the variants were more common in the patients with a given
disease than in healthy people. These studies required large numbers of
patients and cost several million dollars apiece. Nearly 400 of them
had been completed by 2009. These studies revealed that although
hundreds of common genetic variants have been statistically linked with
various diseases, with most diseases, the common variants have turned
out to explain just a fraction of the genetic risk. It now seems more
likely that each common disease is mostly caused by large numbers of
rare variants, ones too rare to have been cataloged by the HapMap.
of the HapMap and genome-wide association studies say that the approach
made sense because it is only now becoming cheap enough to look for
rare variants, and that many common variants do have roles in diseases.
of June 2010, some 850 sites on the genome, most of them near genes,
have been implicated in common diseases. But most of the sites linked
with diseases are not in genes — the stretches of DNA that tell the
cell to make proteins — and have no known biological function, leading
some geneticists[who?] to suspect that the associations are spurious.
of them may stem from factors other than a true association with
disease risk. The new switch among geneticists to seeing rare
variants as the major cause of common disease is a major paradigm shift
in human genetics.
project's goals included not only identifying all of the approximately
24,000 genes in the human genome, but also to address the ethical,
legal, and social issues (ELSI) that might arise from the availability
of genetic information. Five percent of the annual budget was allocated
to address the ELSI arising from the project.
Harry, Executive Director of the U.S group Indigenous Peoples Council
on Biocolonialism (IPCB), says that despite a decade of ELSI funding,
the burden of genetics education has fallen on the tribes themselves to
understand the motives of Human genome project and its potential
impacts on their lives. Meanwhile, the government has been busily
funding projects studying indigenous groups without any meaningful
consultation with the groups. (See Biopiracy.)
main criticism of ELSI is the failure to address the conditions raised
by population-based research, especially with regard to unique
processes for group decision-making and cultural worldviews. Genetic
variation research such as HGP is group population research, but most
ethical guidelines, according to Harry, focus on individual rights
instead of group rights. She says the research represents a clash of
culture: indigenous people's life revolves around collectivity and
group decision making whereas the Western culture promotes
individuality. Harry suggests that one of the challenges of ethical
research is to include respect for collective review and decision
making, while also upholding the Western model of individual rights.