PLURIEL - Axe 2
Memet Aktürk-Drake (Vrije Universiteit Brussel)
In terms of state ideology (Bourhis et al. 1997, Aktürk-Drake forthcoming) and integration policies towards immigrants and their descendants (Huddleston et al. 2015) as well as policies towards linguistic minorities (MPI 2010), France and Sweden appear to occupy two extreme positions in Western Europe. France is usually associated with linguistic assimilationism while Sweden is known for its pluralism. If this characterisation were accurate, and if macro-factors such as ideology and policies had the greatest impact, we would predict distinctly better heritage-language support and maintenance as well as more balanced bilingual proficiency profiles in Sweden compared to France. In order to examine if these predictions are borne out, I would like to address two main issues in this talk. Firstly, can the aforementioned characterisation of the two countries be upheld when we look the actual implementation and results of relevant policies, especially in the educational domain? Secondly, which types of bilingual profiles in terms of language proficiency and use do find in the same ethnic minority group in the two cities? The data come from the project The Integration of the European Second Generation (Crul et al. 2012). The participants were adult children of ethnic Turkish immigrants residing in Paris (N=187) and Stockholm (N=145). The results show on the one hand that there are surprising similarities between France and Sweden concerning the implemented practice of linguistic and educational policies. However, the assimilationist pressure in France has the predicted negative impact on current Turkish use, especially with peers. Perhaps the most surprising result is that the bilingual proficiency profiles are less balanced in Sweden, which seem to be related to the mothers’ greater integration in Sweden and much lower ages of preschool start among second-generation Turks in Stockholm.
Aktürk-Drake, M. (forthcoming). Turkish maintenance and bilingualism among second-generation Turks in multicultural Stockholm. In: Başer, B. & Levin, P. (eds.) Migration
from Turkey to Sweden: Integration, Belonging and Transnational Community. London: IB Tauris.
Bourhis, R. Y., Moïse, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senécal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of
Psychology, 32, 369-386.
Crul, M., Schneider, J. & Lelie, F. (eds.) (2012). The European second generation compared. Does the integration context matter? IMISCOE Research. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Huddleston, T., Bilgili, Ö., Joki, A.-L. & Vankova, Z. (2015). Migrant Integration Policy Index http://www.mipex.eu/key-findings (Accessed 9 December 2015)
MPI (2010). Multiculturalism Policy Index – Immigrant Minorities. http://www.queensu.ca/mcp/ (Accessed 12 December 2015)