Archives de la recherche
L’objectif de ce séminaire est d’accompagner les doctorant.e.s travaillant sur des pratiques langagières socialement situées, intéressé.e.s par les questions de multi et plurilinguisme, variations et changements linguistiques, contacts de langues, mobilités et construction de l’identité. Une place importante est laissée aux approches méthodologiques et cadres théoriques pertinents (analyse de discours, anthropologie linguistique, linguistique du contact, théories de la variation etc.).
Compétences mises en oeuvre : Faire appel aux cadres théoriques et méthodologiques adéquats à l’analyse de pratiques langagières situées en lien avec des problématiques linguistiques et socio-anthropologiques.
Une fois par mois, de 14 à 18h, Campus CNRS de Villejuif, salle 511, bâtiment D (voir : Plan d'accès). Avec le soutien de l’Ecole Doctorale de l’INALCO et de l’UMR SeDyL. Ce séminaire est ouvert aux doctorant.e.s et aux étudiant.e.s du master LLTS sous le code L0SL05 (M2 cohabilité INALCO et Paris 3 Sorbonne Nouvelle).
Dates du séminaire en 2017-2018 : 13 octobre 2017, 17 novembre, 8 décembre, 19 janvier 2018, 9 février, 9 mars, 13 avril, 18 mai, 8 juin
Vendredi 13 avril de 14h00 à 18h00
Anna Ghimenton (Université Lumière Lyon 2, UMR 5596 DDL ; LABEX ASLAN)
Étudier les pratiques langagières : un regard rétrospectif
Cette présentation est une réflexion critique sur les différentes approches méthodologiques et perspectives adoptées jusque-là dans mes recherches portant sur les pratiques langagières. Je montre la façon dont mon regard sur les pratiques langagières a évolué selon les questions qui émergeaient du terrain. En effet, les questions portant sur les processus d’acquisition en situation de contact de langues m’ont poussée à prendre en compte l’influence des caractéristiques sociolinguistiques de l’input sur l’acquisition et la socialisation plurilingue. L’élargissement de ces perspectives m’ont permis de voir un même corpus sous différents angles méthodologiques et disciplinaires. Le but de ma présentation est de souligner l’importance des aller-retours entre terrain et questions de recherche, afin de discerner les avantages et les limites de chaque approche.
Vendredi 13 octobre 2017 de 14h00 à 18h00
Luisa Martín Rojo (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
The interactional construction of social inequality in education settings
From a perspective that understand social inequality as produced by recurrent patterns of unequal distribution of goods, wealth and opportunities, in this seminar we will study how such resources are distributed in and through interaction in education settings. Using empirical data drawn from several research sites in Madrid, Spain, I outline a micro‐ethnographic, task‐oriented approach to understanding the distribution of the linguistic and social resources that are necessary for socio‐educative integration and social mobility through classroom activities. In order to do that, firstly we will examine the processes of capitalization and decapitalization (Martín Rojo 2010, based on Bourdieu’s notion of the convertibility of different forms of capital and social distribution), which will allow us to capture the roles played by the different participants in this unequal distribution of resources. Secondly, we will study how the processes of capitalization and decapitalization take place through a multiplicity of ‘relations of force’. Thus, developing a fluid and dynamic understanding of the microphysics of power and language, which prevent us from locating power in a single point or as exercised in a single direction, we will analyse how different participants can reach different positions within interactions, amplifying or reducing their possibilities of control and resistance. Through these analyses, we will not only capture some of the most recurrent patterns of unequal distribution of resources found in schools, but, in addition, understand how power relations in everyday encounters are fully imbricated with other types of relationships (economic processes, knowledge relationships, gender, ethnic relations, among others).
Vendredi 17 novembre 2017 de 14h00 à 18h00
Thomas Ricento (University of Calgary)
Immigrants, Language, and Integration into the Canada Labor Market
Changes to the 2002 Immigration and Refugee Protection Act focused on identifying immigrants based on their ability to integrate into the Canadian labor market (CIC 2010). The Federal Skilled Workers Program (FSWP) recognizes factors such as education, experience, and language ability through the awarding of points based on a grid. Yet, many studies have shown that immigrants’ labor market outcomes have declined over the last several decades, even though their average level of education is higher than that of the Canadian-born population (e.g., Hawthorne 2008). The importance of English and French literacy skills has been identified as having significant direct and indirect influences on labor market outcomes (Ferrer, et al. 2006). Yet, research has also shown that difficulty in getting foreign credentials recognized as meeting Canadian standards is a barrier to labor market integration (Schellenberg and Maheux 2007), irrespective of acceptable scores on the Canadian Language Benchmark tool in an official language. In this presentation, I report the findings from a two-year ethnographic study carried out in Calgary, Canada. In Phase II of this project, 6 families were chosen for an in-depth ethnographic study over a 10-month period which included more than 100 hours of recorded interviews. The findings demonstrate both the tenacity of individuals seeking a new life in Canada, and their frustrations as ‘foreigners’ whose cultural capital is not recognized by credentialing authorities and employers. The study also revealed that there is a significant non-alignment between the curriculum of the LINC (Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada) program, assessment of relevant language competencies, and the actual needs of skilled workers seeking to reestablish their professional careers in Canada.
CIC (Citizenship and Immigration Canada). (2010). Evaluation of the Federal Skilled Worker Program. Available at: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/evaluation/fswp/.
Ferrer, A., Green, D.A., and Riddell, W.C.. (2006). “The Effect of Literacy on Immigrant Earnings.” Journal of Human Resources 41 (2): 380-410.
Hawthorne, L. (2008). “The Impact of Economic Selection Policy on Labour Market Outcomes for Degree-Qualified Migrants in Canada and Australia.” IRPP Choices 14 (5): 1-50.
Schellenberg, G., and Maheux, H. (2007). “Immigrants’ Perspectives on Their First Four Years in Canada: Highlights from Three Waves of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.” Canadian Social Trends. Catalogue no: 11-008-X. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
Vendredi 8 décembre 2017 de 14h00 à 18h00
Modalités d'évaluation du séminaire
Vendredi 19 janvier 2018 de 14h00 à 18h00
Luca Greco (Université Sorbonne Nouvelle)
Le toucher dans les interactions, l’art et la politique : le mode haptique au centre des pratiques sociales
Toucher le corps, les objets, l’environnement matériel est l’une des modalités les plus puissantes de connaissance du monde et de construction de l’intersubjectivité (Gibson 1962, Merleau-Ponty 1964, Deleuze 1989, Abraira & Ginty 2013). Au croisement de la psychologie, des neurosciences, de la robotique, des sciences sociales et des humanités, le toucher constitue depuis quelques années un véritable champ d’étude au sein duquel les expériences sensorielles sont repensées au prisme des pratiques sociales. Dans ce cadre, la primauté de la vision sur les autres modalités sensorielles est sévèrement interrogée, les frontières entre le corps et l’environnement sont reformulées et le toucher est conçu comme une véritable ressource communicative (Finnegan 2005, M.H. Goodwin 2006, Cekaite 2010, Nishizaka, 2007, Meyer, Streeck, Jordan 2017).
A partir d’un terrain mené dans un atelier drag king à Bruxelles, d’un corpus constitué de performances ayant comme objet et ressource le toucher et d’un ensemble d’entretiens réalisés avec un groupe de femmes ayant participé aux groupes de conscience dans les années 70 en Italie, je testerai l’hypothèse selon laquelle les pratiques tactiles ont la capacité de construire de nouvelles modalités relationnelles et de rendre compte d’un corps en train de se faire. D’abord, le focus sur les pratiques tactiles dans les ateliers drag king me permettra d’interroger le rôle de l’imagination et des sens dans la construction collective d’un corps genré. Ensuite, l’analyse du toucher dans les arts me donnera accès à la façon dont le toucher entre artistes et spectatrices.teurs au cours d’une performance change radicalement les formats de participation. Enfin, l’analyse d’entretiens ouvrira l’exploration du rôle du toucher dans la construction d’un nouveau langage politique et la fabrication de nouvelles corporéités. L’analyse de ces trois cas exemplaires sera l’occasion d’explorer les modes de constitution d’une « intersubjectivité haptique », en articulant perspectives phénoménologique, interactionnelle et critique.
Vendredi 9 février de 14h00 à 18h00
Rosina Marquez Reiter (Univ. of Surrey)
Interviews as sites of ideological work: disentangling stance and alignment
Interviews in their various formats whether structured, semi-structured or unstructured, represent one of the most popular methods for collecting data qualitatively. However, the nature of interviews and the type of data they provide has been the topic of debate in sociolinguistics and associated language and social interaction disciplines such as conversation analysis. While it is now acknowledged that they are not mechanical instruments in which the interviewer poses ideologically free questions, the interviewee automatically responds to them and an objective truth on a given topic emerges, their potential for the construction of ideology they provide us with has been overlooked. To this end, a stance-taking perspective that differentiates between stance and alignment, and takes into account the (oscillating) discourse identities that the participants assume in interaction is adopted.
From an understanding of interviews as social practice and based on the interactional analysis of segments from two interviews, the talk maintains that they are, first and foremost, interactionally accomplished situated social encounters. It shows how the discourse identities assumed by the participants throughout the encounter, their aligning actions with respect to these and the views conveyed, can bring into focus aspects of ideology that would be difficult to capture otherwise. The talk thus shows how, through the calibration of stance, alignment and discourse identities, rapport is built between the interview participants. This rapport is not necessarily in line with the maintenance of the professional-personal boundary typically expected of interviewers. It is the result of the interviewer’s involvement with the interviewees’ accounts.
Vendredi 9 mars de 14h00 à 18h00
Jacomine Nortier (Utrecht University)
Development and methodology in Youth Languages: practices, identity and multilingualism
In the first part of my presentation I will sketch the background and history of Dutch youth languages (although the term youth languages is not used and accepted by all researchers studying the phenomenon) since the nineteen nineties. Beside linguistic characteristics, matters of ethnicity, identity, language play and polylanguaging or translanguaging will be addressed. In interaction with the audience I hope we will be able to make a comparison between the Dutch and French situations.
Furthermore, I will discuss the pros and cons of collecting data from social media instead of ‘good old’ methods like recording and transcribing real-life conversations. I will argue that the use of Internet data cannot fully replace real-life data but it creates possibilities to study identity work – and play – that have not been possible before. Users of social media have rapidly developed new skills and we, as researchers, will have to follow from a distance in order to understand. By way of illustration: a twenty-five-year-old native French male Internet user can pretend to be a fifteen-year-old Senegalese girl living in the banlieue if he knows the linguistic means and uses the right nickname. Such identity changes are impossible in real-life. What are the consequences of these changes?
Participants are asked, if possible, to bring data from the Internet to support the readings which will be discussed during the seminar: can you find any metalinguistic comments on the use of French youth languages, Verlan, etc.? Or illustrations of topics from the readings? Examples can be found on Facebook, in YouTube comments, just to mention two possibilities.
Lectures préparatoires :
Nortier, J.M. (2017). Online metalinguistic comments and gender roles in Multilingual Youth Speech Styles & Practices among Moroccan girls and women in the Netherlands. Applied Linguistics Review (26 p.).
Nortier, J.M. (2018). Language and Identity Practices among Multilingual Western European Youths. Linguistics and Language Compass.
Vendredi 14 octobre 2016 de 14h00 à 18h00
Li Wei, UCL Institute of Education, University College London
Translanguaging as a theory of language: some conceptual and methodological considerations
The notion of Translanguaging has, in the last ten years or so, attracted a considerable amount of attention in the applied linguistics community. On the whole, it has been accepted as a useful pedagogical approach to language education, particularly bilingual education. Its significance as a theoretical concept, especially as a theory of Language, remains controversial. Some question its added value compared to the more established concepts such as code-switching. In this article, I focus on Translanguaging as a theory of Language and discuss the theoretical motivations behind the concept and the methodological challenges in its application to real data. I contextualise Translanguaging in the debate over the Modularity of Mind hypothesis and the multilingual language users’ Symbolic and Multi-Competence. One particular aspect of multilingual language users’ social interaction that I want to emphasize is the multi-modal and multi-sensory nature. Drawing examples from everyday social interactions amongst the Chinese and Polish diasporic communities in Britain, I aim to show what can be gained by adapting the Translanguaging approach rather than the traditional code-switching approach, as well as how the notion of Language can be handled in empirical analyses from a Translanguaging perspective. In doing so, I respond to some of the criticisms levelled by theoretical linguists against the notion of Translanguaging and point out the muddles in the logic of arguments hitherto presented. To answer Kramsch’s call for a practice-based theory of language, I suggest that Translanguaging would be a strong candidate and would make a key contribution to theory building in applied linguistics. In the meantime, I also highlight the necessity to bridge the artificial, and ideological, divide between the socio-cultural and what’s been called the ‘cognitive’, approaches to dynamic multilingual practices.
Séance du 18 novembre :
Bibliographie et modalités d'évaluation du séminaire
Séance du 2 décembre :
Cécile Van den Avenne (ENS Lyon)
Textes et voix. Pour une approche philologique des pratiques langagières en contexte colonial
Comment reconstituer et décrire des pratiques langagières anciennes, à laquelle nous n'avons plus accès que par des écrits, témoignages directs ou indirects d'une interaction définitivement perdue ? En partant de cette question, ma présentation abordera des questions d'épistémologie (penser les liens entre histoire et sociolinguistique/anthropologie linguistique), des questions de méthode (quel corpus, quelles traces textuelles ? comment les lire et les interpréter ?), tout en exemplifiant à partir d'un « terrain » que je pratique depuis maintenant une dizaine d'année : celui des archives coloniales, et d'un objet : les pratiques langagières en contexte de contact colonial, en Afrique de l'Ouest.
Parce que je travaille sur des textes anciens, dont il m'est très difficile de connaître les conditions de production, j'emprunte à des démarches d'historiens, que ce soit la méthode indiciaire, telle que théorisée par Carlo Ginzburg par exemple, la lecture « against the grain », pour retrouver la voix des dominés, préconisé par des chercheurs spécialistes de la période coloniale (par exemple dans les travaux des Comaroff, 1991), ou au contraire « along the grain » lorsqu'il s'agit de saisir les logiques propres aux archives coloniales (comme dans les travaux d'Ann Stoler, ), ou, dans des démarches féministes, postcoloniales, ou l'archéologie de la performance, proposée par l'historienne Anne Clément (2012). Je qualifie cette méthode de « philologique », reprenant un adjectif qu'utilise l'anthropologue Johannes Fabien (Fabian 1991a), pour caractériser le type de recherche qu'il a mené sur la pratique du swahili en contexte colonial au Congo. Une approche philologique consiste, écrit-il, à « prêter attention aux petits indices qui peuvent être considéré comme des liens entre la description linguistique et les pratiques communicatives » (« small clues which can be regarded as links between linguistic description and communicative practices », Fabian, 1991 : 40, ma traduction). Cette méthode est sous-tendue par une interrogation : comment, à partir d'un texte écrit, « remonter » à ce que fut la performance orale et l'interaction réelle qui en est le point d'origine ?
J'exemplifiera ma méthode en proposant une lecture de différents textes, et plus particulièrement des carnets d'exploration de Louis-Gustave Binger (1856-1936). Il les rédigea entre 1887 et 1889 tout au long d'une grande expédition d'exploration, qui lui fit parcourir près de 4000 kilomètres entre Bamako au Soudan (actuel Mali) et Grand Bassam, sur la côte de l'actuelle Côte d'Ivoire. Ces carnets sont sont la trace d'une activité d'écriture prise dans le quotidien d'une expédition d'exploration coloniale, et sont précieux pour des chercheurs s'intéressant au contact colonial et aux écrits produits par le contact colonial. La caractéristique peut-être la plus étonnante de ces carnets est leur multilinguisme, qui nous permet d'entrevoir ce que pouvait être au quotidien les pratiques linguistique de Binger sur la route, « on the road », pour reprendre le titre d'un ouvrage de Johannes Fabian (1984). Je m'attacherai donc à la dimension proprement linguistique de ces carnets, et à ce qu'ils nous laissent entrevoir des pratiques communicatives de Binger et de la façon dont il recueille et organise son savoir sur les langues, puis j'essaierai de retrouver la trace de son intermédiaire et interprète principal, pour faire surgir une autre voix, africaine celle-là.
Clément, Anne. 2012. « À la recherche des « voix » des fallāhīn dans un dossier d’archives judiciaires égyptiennes », Ateliers d'anthropologie [Online], 36 | 2012, consulté le 4 février 2014. URL : http://ateliers.revues.org/9007 ; DOI : 10.4000/ateliers.9007.
Comaroff, Jean et Comaroff, John L. 1991. Of revelation and revolution : Christianity, colonialism, and consciousness in South Africa. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
Fabian, Johannes. 1984. Language on the road. Notes on Swahili in two Nineteeth Century Travelogues, Hambourg, Helmut Buske Verlag.
Fabian, Johannes. 1991a. « Accident and method in the study of intercultural communication: Colonial description of Swahili in the former Belgian Congo », in Blommaert, J., & Verschueren, J. (Eds.) The Pragmatics of International and Intercultural Communication (Vol. 6, No. 3). John Benjamins Publishing, pp. 33-50.
Fabian, Johannes. 1991b. Language and colonial power: The appropriation of Swahili in the former Belgian Congo 1880-1938. University of California Press.
Fabian, Johannes. 2000. Out of our minds: Reason and madness in the exploration of Central Africa. University of California Press.
Stoler, Ann L. 2010. Along the archival grain: Epistemic anxieties and colonial common sense. Princeton University Press.
Séance du 20 janvier 2017
Dominique Lagorgette (Université Savoie Mont Blanc)
La linguistique légale, à la croisée des champs et des enjeux : de la théorie au terrain
Si la linguistique légale existe depuis plus de 40 ans dans les pays anglo-saxons comme discipline reconnue et établie, elle n'a pas encore ce statut en France. Mettant à disposition des tribunaux les outils et méthodes de l'ensemble des champs de la linguistique (phonétique, phonologie, morphologie, lexicologie, syntaxe, sémantique, pragmatique, sociolinguistique, analyse de discours, etc.), les linguistes qui livrent des rapports sont encore rares. Pourtant, leur pratique s'avère souvent décisive, en particulier dans le droit de la presse ou de la propriété intellectuelle. Nous parcourerons les différents domaines de cette discipline, en nous appuyant sur plusieurs cas pratiques, avec un accent tout particulier sur la méthodologie, la constitution des corpus, l'établissement des données, notamment. Nous verrons aussi ce que ce type de pratique de terrain permet d'apporter à la recherche fondamentale en sciences du langage, mais aussi, pourquoi pas ?, au droit.
Bibliographie indicative :
Coulthard M. & Johnson A., 2007, An Introduction to Forensic Linguistics: Language in Evidence, London and New York, Routledge.
Coulthard M., 2005, «Some Forensic Applications of Descriptive Linguistics », www.business-english.ch/downloads/Malcolm%20Coulthard/Forensic.applications.pdf
Dumoulin L., 2005, « Le recours aux experts, un mode de rationalisation des pratiques judiciaires ? », Politiques et Management Public 23, 3, 145-159.
Lagorgette D. (éd.), 2010, « Linguistique légale et demande sociale : les linguistes au tribunal», Langage et société 132.
Lagorgette D.,2009, « De la scène au tribunal : le cas Condkoï », Les Insultes : de la recherche fondamentale à ses applications, D. Lagorgette (éd.), Chambéry, PUdS, 309-329.
Rainville P. (2005), Les humeurs du droit pénal, Québec, Les Presses de l’Université Laval.
Shuy R.W., 2006, Linguistics in the courtroom: A practical guide. New York, O.U.P.
Tiersma P.M., Solan L.M., 2002, « The linguist on the witness stand: forensic linguistics in American courts”, Language 78, 2, 221-239.
Tousignant C., 1990, La Linguistique en cours de justice, Presses de l’U. du Québec.
Séance du 24 février 2017
Jan Blommaert, University of Tilburg
In the context of a large-scale project which I called "Durkheim and the Internet", I have tried to propose several social-theoretical constructs grounded in contemporary sociolinguistic/linguistic-anthropological research, capable of doing justice of the post-Durkheimian world - a world in which we lead our social lives online as well as offline, locally as well as translocally, in very different kinds of communities than the ones imagined in the Durkheimian tradition of sociology. One of these constructs is that of "chronotopic identities". I start from the observation that the online-offline world is characterized by a phenomenal fragmentation of social (public and private) spacetime and extremely complex connections between online and offline forms of social practice, calling into question widespread and mainstream social-theoretical constructs of community and, inevitably, identity. In order to shape a realistic empirical research terrain, I suggest that we take spacetime configurations as our unit, and see such units as "chronotopes" in the Bakhtinian sense: concrete "ideologized" contexts characterized by specific normative-evaluative complexes, interactionally performed. The latter I call "moralized behavioral scripts", and such scripts establish the perimeter of what is socially acceptable and what is not in the specific spacetime configuration. The outcome of this exercise is a view in which "big" identities (such as class, nationality, gender, ethnicity...) do not disappear but (a) are located as characteristic for specific chronotopes and (b) are never the only relevant diacritics, but are always part of a "bundle" alongside "small" or "light" identities. The latter are traditionally dismissed as relatively irrelevant; while, in sociolinguistics, we see that they often prevail in the lived experience of social actors - think of the identitarian-evaluative power of accent in speech.
Séance du 17 mars
Joan Pujolar Cos, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona
Towards a sociolinguistics of speakers
In this session, I propose to reflect on ways to address agency in sociolinguistic research on multilingualism and inequalities by drawing on recent research on New Speakers, particulary the so-called language “mudes”. During the last four years, a network of European researchers have been sharing the results of case studies in different contexts on how non-native speakers of a language manage the process not just of learning the language but also of becoming a legitimate participant in their “new” speech community. i.e. they become “New speakers” of that language. We know that linguistic diversity is constituted by -and helps reproduce- social hierarchies and relations of power that Bourdieu aptly characterized as linguistic markets in which actors strive to accumulate and define what constitutes linguistic capital. In the last decades sociolinguistic research has shown how resilient these inequalities are and how they prey on disadvantaged social groups in education, in the job market, or even in the implementation of citizenship policies. However, new speakers are testimony of the fact that social actors can strategically navigate linguistic hierarchies through individual or collectively concerted action. Speakers can act on their repertoire in many ways that have economic and political consequences. In my recent research in Catalonia, we characterized a process that we named “muda”, i.e. when native speakers of Spanish worked to make themselves available in social life as Catalan speakers. We showed that “mudes” were possible in specific junctures, moments in which people changed acquaintances and everyday life contexts; but they also required creative initiative by speakers in order to sort out the subtle logics of identities and situationalities involved in using a language in everyday life.
I intend to present my team’s main findings of our studies of linguistic mudes, and build connections with people who have done similar studies in other contexts, including new explorations on language and affect that point in interesting directions as to how social subjectivities are linguistically constituted. I will also use the opportunity to critically discuss on methods, as research on new speakers has relied so far heavily on biographical material. In the future, we will have to invest in detailed ethnographic studies to get a more comprehensive understanding on how these particular forms of linguistic agency operate.
Séance du 21 avril
Ana Deumert, University of Cape Town
Together We Can Create a Freer Future’: Digital Language Activism, Challenging and Reproducing Hegemonies
In February 2012, Mozilla announced its plans to translate the web browser Firefox into Quechua, a South American language. The initiative was linked to the runasimipi.org initiative which proclaimed in its manifesto: ‘The very act of using Quechua software is a political statement … Our dream is that any Andean child who goes to a cyber-café in the future will have the option to see everything in [their] native language. Together we can create a freer future’. Can digital technology – its historical English bias notwithstanding – become a tool for political empowerment of hitherto marginalized languages and their speakers/writers? The American linguist David Harrison called this the ‘flipside of globalization’: rather than assimilation to a dominant – mostly English-speaking global culture – we see a myriad of activities for which marginalized communities use digital media. This includes everyday linguistic practices (as discussed in Deumert and Lexander 2013), as well as various types of language activism which helps speakers/writers to gain visibility for their languages and ways of speaking in the global arena.
In this talk I argue that digital language activism can both reproduce and challenge existing political, social and linguistic hegemonies: on the one hand, persistent digital social inequalities mean that some people in the world have more opportunities for digital expression than others; on the other hand, digital media have created new opportunities for speakers/writers to make their voices heard. In my reflections on questions of digital equality, authority, visibility and voice, I draw on examples from across the world, and focus on three media platforms: texting, Twitter and Wikipedia.
Séance du 19 mai
Kathryn A. Woolard, University of California San Diego
Language: Attitudes to Ideologies
Twenty-five years ago, linguistic anthropologists from diverse analytic traditions joined forces to forward a collective research agenda on language ideologies, i.e., selective, interested cultural conceptions of the nature of language and of its role in social life. The premise was that language ideology is not just an epiphenomenon, but rather a mediating link between social and linguistic structures that reflexively affects the form of each (Woolard, 1998). Therefore, as Michael Silverstein argued, the necessary “linguistic datum” was the “total linguistic fact”: “the mutual interaction of meaningful sign forms, contextualized to situations of interested human use, mediated by cultural ideology” (Silverstein, 1985).
The net was cast wide enough to bring into potential relation linguistic studies of historical changes in form and use, anthropological studies of cross-cultural differences in conceptualizations of language as an object or a social activity, and socio- and psycho-linguistic studies of language attitudes and prestige within linguistic contact situations. Later waves of sociolinguistic studies came to privilege speakers' agency and concepts of language ideology such as social indexicality and iconization as explanatory keys to account for linguistic variation and change. These accounts resonate in some ways with earlier explorations of linguistic attitudes.
Sociolinguistic indexicality has been demonstrated to be socially productive, in that listeners project personal qualities onto unfamiliar speakers and make decisions about their social status and fate on the basis of previously conceived indexical relations. But when does such social indexicality become productive in the perceiver’s own speech? In this presentation, I argue that even if we are committed to a model that privileges speaker agency, we need at least one more crucial link in the ideological chain between what can be measured as linguistic attitudes or characterized as sociolinguistic indexicality and an individual's linguistic practice. Following an observation made by William Labov (Labov, 2001), I develop the argument that if language attitudes are to be used to account for the diffusion of linguistic changes, we must posit a covert belief structure: that speakers feel that their adoption of the linguistic form will lead others to attribute to them the positive traits and a share in the privileges associated with it. I sketch the outline of a model and illustrate it with some of my research in Catalonia as it evolved across 35 years from a focus on language attitudes to language ideologies. I also consider the applicability of the model sketched to examples from others' research on intra-language phonological variation.
Labov, William (2001). Principles of Linguistic Change. Vol. 2: Social Factors.
Silverstein, Michael (1985). "Language and the culture of gender: at the intersection of structure, usage and ideology." In Semiotic Mediation, edited by E. Mertz and R. J. Parmentier, pp. 219 - 259. Orlando: Academic Press.
Woolard, Kathryn A. (1998). "Introduction: Language ideology as a field of inquiry." In B. B. Schieffelin, K. A. Woolard, & P. Kroskrity (Eds.), Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory, pp. 3-47. New York: Oxford University Press.
Séance du 23 juin
Monica Heller, Université de Toronto
Un Canadien errant : mobilités, ancrages et patrouilles de la frontière de la « nation »
L’objectif de cette présentation sera d’exposer certaines stratégies méthodologiques adoptées au sein d’un projet de recherche en cours. Ces stratégies ont été développées afin de rendre opérationnelle l’idée que la « nation » (comme toute autre catégorie sociale, d’ailleurs) se construit par le biais de processus d’inclusion et d’exclusion dans la vie quotidienne, ainsi que de processus de production et de reproduction d’idéologies légitimantes. Ces processus se réalisent par le biais de performances sociales observables. Le projet en question, « Un Canadien errant : mobilités, ancrages et restructurations transformatrices de la nation », cible le cas de la « nation franco-canadienne» pour examiner les mobilités (sociales et géographiques, dans le passé comme au présent) normalement effacées dans le discours privilégié de la nation enracinée, mais dont il dépend. Même si la langue et le langage sont toujours un enjeu dans la construction de la « nation », dans le cas spécifique que nous examinons ils constituent un terrain particulièrement important et chargé.
Le projet, mené par une équipe pluridisciplinaire (anthropologie, sociolinguistique, science politique, histoire) relie les pratiques langagières et les discours épilinguistiques des acteurs sociaux à la gestion de la frontière de la francité canadienne, c’est-à-dire les manières dont des gens ayant une variété de parcours peuvent être recrutés ou refoulés, ou peuvent chercher à s’ancrer ou au contraire fuir les droits et les obligations d’un-e bon-ne « francophone ». On y voit la construction de la légitimité de la langue et du locuteur, ainsi que le travail sur soi et sur l’autre afin de fournir/produire les performances valorisées (ou les contester) et ainsi travailler pour la reproduction ou la transformation de la francité canadienne.
Les études de cas comprennent des parcours reliant non seulement différentes régions du Canada (le Québec, le Manitoba et la Colombie-Britannique) avec d’autres parties du monde, mais aussi les parcours canadiens entre ces provinces, et entre la ville et la campagne. On examine entre autres le recrutement, la formation et les expériences de personnes considérées « immigré-e-s », « réfugié-e-s » ou encore « étudiant-e-s internationaux »; les jeunes « nomades » Français et Québécois de passage (ou pas) en Colombie-Britannique; l’histoire oubliée des colporteurs et commerçants « Syriens » dans les mêmes régions du Québec qui accueillent actuellement les réfugiés également nommés « Syriens »; et encore le va-et-vient ambivalent entre le Manitoba et le Québec de l’élite « franco-manitobaine » du début du 20e siècle jusqu’à nos jours.
Vendredi 16 octobre 2015 de 14h00 à 18h00
James Costa (Université Paris 3) Régimes linguistiques et organisation sociale des idéologies du langage en Ecosse
This talk is interested in exploring the concept of ‘regimes’ of language, in connection with the more familiar notion of language ideologies. Language ideologies have attracted much attention in the past couple of decades (e.g. Bauman & Briggs, 2003; Schieffelin, Woolard, & Kroskrity, 1998; Silverstein, 1979; Taylor & Joseph, 1990). As an analytical category, ‘linguistic ideology’ has benefited from much definitional work (Kroskrity, 2000; Woolard & Schieffelin,1994) and has become an essential (albeit perhaps overused) tool for linguistic anthropologists. Regimes of language, on the other hand, are regularly summoned but have attracted little conceptual work. In his introduction to the volume entitled Regimes of Language, Kroskrity links the term regime with ‘the display of political domination in all its many forms’ (2000, p. 3), and states that ‘regimes of language […] promised to integrate two often segregated domains: politics (without language) and language (without politics).’ Kroskrity subsequently equates regimentation with the controlling of socially dominant discourses (Kroskrity, 2000, pp. 9, 11). More recently Gal wrote of standardization that it is ‘only one kind of language regime (2006, p. 17), linking regimentation with the organization of language ideologies, and echoing Foucault’s (1980) regimes of truth: linguistic regimes are thus somehow connected with ideas of truth and authority. Yet just what they refer to exactly remains unclear: are ‘language regimes’ a mere synonym for ideologies or for the (conscious or unconscious) organization of ideologies? Do they refer to the actual mobilization of power that ideologies generate, or are they a way to appeal to a form of undefined authority regulating linguistic practices? Building on those insights, and drawing on empirical research, this panel wishes to ask whether the study of linguistic regimes may become a way to productively understand and link ideologies, practices and political economy (a program outlined by Heller, 2007, p. 2)? One central question we ask in this panel is thus: how do ideologies make people do things with language? And how are the categories (e.g. accent, dialect,register, patois, language etc.) that ideologies determine turned into resources and organized, by whom and to what effect? Consequently, we understand the notion of regimentation as essentially linked with struggles over power and sovereignty. Regimes are historically and etymologically linked with the authority of a regal figure, the rex, to which Benveniste (1973) ascribes the power to legitimately trace geographic, legal (and hence conceptual) limits. Regimes are fundamentally about access to resources that are ideologically determined and about the social organization of those resources; they are about legitimizing the social division of the world (Bourdieu, 1980). In other words, in this sense regimes are about limits and the establishment of categories, about the practical workings of categories which ideologies help determine. More specifically, I will focus on standardization as a sociolinguistic regime premised on the idea that everyone potentially has equal access to a linguistic standard, and I will analyze how specific social actors mobilize various linguistic categorizations under the present ideological conditions in post-independence referendum Scotland to understand what it entails for whom: in other words, how do people do dialect or language? How are people’s actions constrained and regimented within the social space that the existence of such ideologically bound categories permits, and how are boundaries moved to implement or impede social changes? Based on the analysis of language debates over the desirability of (not) standardizing Scots, I will argue that the regimentation of language is fundamentally about defining and managing the public space and who has access to it, and under which conditions.
Vendredi 20 novembre 2015 de 14h00 à 18h00
Christopher Stroud (University of the Western Cape)
Turbulence and entanglements: Some thoughts on the south and sociolinguistics
The South African sociologist Crain Soudien has recently suggested that what he called “the melange and intensity” that characterizes post-apartheid South Africa makes the country an ideal and privileged, one might add, place to think about questions of ‘ontological fashioning’ – of what it means to be human, and to live with diversity. What is particularly interesting about this point is that we lack a ‘language’ or means to conceptualize – or even talk about the experientiality of living differently with diversity – we experience much more than we can conceptualize.
What I will be talking about in this seminar is an approach to framing experientialities of language/multilingualism and diversity that focuses on and takes its point of departure in normative clashes, juxtapositions of difference, unexpected shifts in our perception of situations, how very different people with very different histories ‘get on’ or not indifferent spaces – the puzzlement, laughter, joy or alternatively, the fear, aggression and animosity of difference. I will attempt to flesh out Soudien’s suggestion about the importance of post-apartheid society for thinking about ontological fashioning by suggesting that one approach that might help us appreciate and process the lessons that we can glean from South Africa – and, in a broader frame, contribute towards conceptualizing the experientiality of complex change – is to think of language diversity, place, body and citizenship in terms of a metaphor or notion of ‘turbulence’
Vendredi 11 décembre 2015 de 14h00 à 18h00
Reem Bassiouney (American University in Cairo)
Stance and metalinguistic discourse: A complementary approach to variation Examples from Egypt
One of the main aims of sociolinguistics is to study language variation within or across communities. Variationist research was initially concerned with collecting data from across different social communities (Hazen 2014: 10), in order to ‘correlate a linguistic variable with a sociolinguistic one, such as gender, social class, age or education”. Since then, as Hazen argues, the questions and accompanying methods that pertain to variationist research have spread “[f]rom broader levels of society to social networks, with different density and multiplexity’, to communities of practice to the individual who ‘(re)create[s] sociolinguistic styles in the ebb and flow of social meaning and personal identity’ (2014: 14). In this study I explore cases related to linguistic variation and the individual in the Egyptian sociopolitical context. What these cases have in common is that they all demonstrate that linguistic variation and code choice are not just the result of a correlation between linguistic and sociolinguistic variables, but the product of an ideological process, in which talk about language is at times as significant as linguistic choices, and an individual’s linguistic choices are not simply natural, but rather are performed and, at times, are the result or reflection of a wider societal conflict. In the first case, individuals are forced to display a positive stance towards a specific dialect and to use it accordingly in interviews, even when it is not their native dialect; in this instance, the ideological indexes of linguistic resources in a highly competitive, globalised media context are manipulated to the utmost. In the second case, political unrest is manifested through a war over access to linguistic resources, and national identity is indexed through the choice of different linguistic codes. In my analysis of these cases, I engage with the sociolinguistic concepts of indexicality (Silverstein 1996) and stance (Jaffe 2009). Needless to say this study does not aim to replace methods used to quantity variation and change but rather aims to add a fresh perspective to these methods.
Vendredi 29 janvier 2016 de 14h00 à 18h00
Adrian Blackledge (University of Birmingham)
Language and Superdiversity in Two City Meeting-Places
This paper presents emergent outcomes of a study which investigates how people communicate when they bring different histories, biographies, and trajectories to interaction in contexts of superdiversity. The study is a linguistic ethnography of city neighbourhoods, focusing on a small number of key participants. Taking Goffman as a starting point for analysis the presentation considers how interactions in ‘the slop of social life’ serve to connect and disconnect people. Analysis relates to conditions of migration, multilingualism and multiculturalism in contemporary cities.
Séance du vendredi 5 février 2016 de 14h00 à 18h00 : Food and Language
1. Martha Sif Karrebæk (Université de Copenhague)
Food, language and imaginaries: Rye bread and health socialization in Danish classrooms
Food and language is a growing area within sociolinguistics broadly speaking. Food is one of the more popular ways in which people get acquainted and engage with other cultural practices than they have been socialized into, but food is also an area of cultural contestation and ideological struggle. Both historical and contemporary developments impact the understandings and valorizations of single food elements, and their social use and function also depend on the setting. However, in all cases language is vital for the ways that food is understood, enregistered and used.
In this talk, I will focus on a study on food cultural practices in a classroom in Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the specific indexicalities, or social and cultural meanings, that food obtained there. More particularly I will argue that traditional food items in the Danish majority culture were favoured, and accordingly that children of minority background found themselves in a difficult situation. Language socialization (Duranti, Ochs & Schieffelin 2011) and Linguistic Ethnography (Rampton 2007; Snell, Shaw & Copland 2015) constitute the methodological frameworks.
2. Marie Maegaard (Université de Copenhague)
"he Bornholmian cocktail” and the invention of authenticity
Copenhagen has a high number of high-end eating places, many inspired by the New Nordic Cuisine. One such restaurant, Restaurant Koefoed has meticulously made a brand out of being ‘Bornholmian’ referring to the small Danish island Bornholm which is situated approximately 160 km away from the capital. And Koefoed continues to put a lot of effort into creating itself as Bornholmian.
On the basis of data from recordings of restaurant interaction and drawing on Coupland’s (2003, 2014) semantic dimensions of authenticity we have shown elsewhere (Karrebæk and Maegaard, forthc.) how authenticity is co-constructed in interaction between waiters and guests. In this paper, we focus on how the potential for such co-constructions, and the commodification of Bornholmian language and culture, takes place back-stage (Goffman 1959), e.g., as restaurant owner and staff come up with new concepts for the restaurant. We illustrate the development of a new pre-dinner drink – the so-called “Bornholmian cocktail”. We also discuss what authenticity seems to mean to the owner, the sommelier and the manager who all participate in the activity. The study shows how today commercial products, like a restaurant experience, are tailored and constructed by producers to meet the consumers’ demand for added symbolic value and distinction - at the same time as they create these demands (Heller & Duchêne 2012, Heller 2014).
Séance du vendredi 18 mars 2016 de 14h00 à 18h00
Jannis Androutsopoulos, Universität Hamburg
Multilingual practices online: issues of method and theory
Multilingualism in computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been a research topic since the mid-1990s, predominantly located in virtual communities of minority/migrant language speakers. With the progressive digitalization of communication during the last 20 years and the collapse of the former divide between online and ‘real life’, multilingual practices online have also become topical for a broader group of researchers interested in communicative processes surrounding contemporary migration and mobility, including the increasingly transmedia character of contemporary communicative practices. In this seminar I draw on various examples and case studies to examine three areas that have kept (sociolinguistics-based) researchers of multilingual CMC busy during the last 15 years. These are:
- Issues of method, especially ways to combine digital data (screen data) with practice observations and interviews with selected users (user data).
- Issues of coding and analysis of multilingual data, ranging from coding of language choice to analysis of multilingual interaction (languaging).
- Issues of how to relate online to offline language practices theoretically and analytically; This is a challenge inasmuch digital-written language has been tacitly viewed as direct continuation of spoken language practices, which, however, are usually not elicited by CMC researchers.
One aim of the seminar is to illustrate practice-based solutions to these issues; the other is to problematize received theoretical assumptions in the field. Drawing on the framework of networked multilingualism (Androutsopoulos 2015), I argue that the mediality and audience of networked interaction create specific conditions for language practices, which cannot be reduced to a straightforward ‘transcription’ of oral delivery. I also suggest that the study of multilingual practices online provides a test bed for the reach of sociolinguistic frameworks of multilingualism beyond face-to-face, spoken language interaction.
• Androutsopoulos, J. (2013). Online data collection. In: C. Mallinson, B. Childs / G.V. Herk (eds.) Data Collection in Sociolinguistics: Methods and Applications, 236-250. Routledge.
• Androutsopoulos, Jannis (2013) Code-switching in computer-mediated communication. In: S. C. Herring, D. Stein & T. Virtanen (eds) Pragmatics of Computer-mediated Communication, 667-694. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter Mouton.
• Androutsopoulos , J. (2014) Moments of sharing: Entextualization and linguistic repertoires in social networking. Journal of Pragmatics 73 (2014) 4-18.
• Androutsopoulos, Jannis (2015) Networked multilingualism: Some language practices on Facebook and their implications. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19:2, 185-205.
Séance du vendredi 8 avril 2016 de 14h00 à 18h00
Judith Purkarthofer, MultiLing, University of Oslo
Language portraits and other visual and multimodal methods – Elicitating and analyzing lived language experience (Spracherleben)
Language portraits are situated within speaker-centered biographical research, drawing on the concept of heteroglossia (drawing on Bakhtin 1981, Busch 2012). They aim to understand the dynamic linguistic repertoire of multilingual speakers as it relates to a diversity of modes of expressions, coming from several languages and constructing language practices in negotiation with the communities of interaction. Emotions and experiences are among the first memories of language acquisition and add to the potential subject positions of speakers (cf. Kristeva 1988, see Kramsch 2009). Individual speakers may feel confident or vulnerable in their heteroglossic environments, depending on their resources and strategies of resilience but also dependent on the language regimes they encounter. Biographic experience, individual's language learning and use and societal discourses contribute to expectations, motivations and intentions of speakers – these come into play w hen nego tiating language policy or evaluating success according to the set (explicit or rather unconscious) goals.
This session focuses on the eliciation of biographical narratives through creative and multimodal methodology. We will discuss the production and interpretation of data and issues of language and power in relation to choices of methodology.Illustration 0: Language Portrait
Reading list: Busch, Brigitta. 2012. The linguistic repertoire revisited. In: Tim McNamara. Special issue: Poststructuralist challenges for applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics 33/5. 503–523.
Bakhtin, Michail. 1981. The dialogic imagination. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.
Kramsch, Claire. 2009. The multilingual subject. Multilingual Matters.
Kristeva, Julia. 1988. Etrangers à nous-mêmes. Paris: Fayard.
Séance du vendredi 13 mai 2016 de 14h00 à 18h00
Scott F. Kiesling, University of Pittsburgh
Specifying Stance in Three Dimensions
Stance and stancetaking are increasingly being used as explanatory concepts motivating linguistic behavior. Elinor Ochs argues in her classic 1992 article that stance is a mediating concept for gender identity, such that stances are consitutive of ideologically oriented-to genders. However, despite recent interest, there is still relatively little theoretical and methodological specification for understanding stance. In this talk, I argue for a three dimensional model of stance, in which the concept is defined in terms of relationships in talk, and is composed by the dimensions of affect, alignment, and investment. Affect is the speaker’s relationship to a stance focus in the talk, while alignment is the speaker’s relationship to other interlocutors. The third dimension – investment – is the intensity with which a speaker is committed to, or takes responsibility for, their talk, and is a crucial extra dimension to the first two that many models of stance do not include. Using data from the online forum Reddit and face to face talk, I show how this model allows us to have a robust vocabulary for discussing stance as it mediates talk and identity, as well as an opportunity to explore relationship among the dimensions. I further demonstrate how separate dimensions can be indexed with identities such as gender.
Ochs, E. (1992). Indexing Gender. In A. Duranti & C. Goodwin (Eds.), Rethinking Context (pp. 335–358). Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Vendredi 10 juin 2016 de 14h00 à 18h00
Alexandra Jaffe (California State University, Long Beach)
Standardization(s) and regimentation: What does a plural standard enable and constrain?
This presentation explores the linguistic practices and social entailments of polynomie, an explicitly anti-monologlot ideology of language and plural standardization regime on the island of Corsica. Like all forms of standardization, polynomie is a social, cultural and political project that was conceived of in a particular historical, sociolinguistic, ideological and political context. Over three decades later, that context has undergone a number of transformations that have had implications for how polynomie is reflected in institutional practice and its implications for how speakers and writers of different kinds are positioned as legitimate, authoritative or authentic. In this presentation, I will both trace that history and provide examples from contemporary practice, reiterating a point that I have made in a number of ways in a variety of publications: that all standardization regimes both enable and constrain, and that even a plural, inclusive regime of language like polynomie regiments and ranks ways of speaking, writing and being.
Séance du vendredi 19 septembre 2014 de 14h00 à 18h00 :
Janus Spindler Møller, University of Copenhagen
Languaging and Polylanguaging - Theoretical underpinnings and methodological implications
In my talk I will define and discuss the concepts of languaging and poly-languaging (e.g. Jørgensen et al. 2011, Jørgensen & Møller 2014), and provide an insight into the research context where they were developed, particularly the two longitudinal studies, the Køge Project (Møller 2009, Jørgensen 2010) and the Everyday Languaging project (earlier referred to as the Amager-project, Madsen et al. 2013).
Languaging is the use of language by human beings, directed intentionally to other human beings. In the languaging perspective “a language” is viewed as a sociocultural construct believed to comprise a coherent and delimited set of linguistic features. “Speaking a language” therefore means using features associated with a given language – and only such features. Thereby “speaking a language” must be viewed as a normative choice rather than a nature-given way of communication. The necessity of this perspective on language becomes evident when dealing with interaction that involves a mix of linguistic resources usually associated with different “languages” – what we in our research-group refer to as poly-languaging (cf. García & Wei 2014 on translanguaging). In analyses of poly-languaging the relation between linguistic features and ‘languages’, as well as the relation between ‘languages’ and speakers, should be put forward as empirical questions rather than being taken for granted in analytical work on interaction. In my presentation I will discuss how this type of analysis practically can be carried out and what insights it may reveal.
Séance du vendredi 10 octobre 2014 de 14h00 à 18h00 : SEDYL - Structure et Dynamique des Langues
7 rue Guy Môquet 94800 VILLEJUIF
SEDYL - Structure et Dynamique des Langues