Sedyl - Structure et Dynamique des Langues - UMR8202 - CELIA


Archives de la recherche

Séminaires

3. Pratiques langagières - terrains, méthodes, théories
Animé par Isabelle Léglise (CNRS, SeDyL) et Valelia Muni Toke (IRD, SeDyL)

L’objectif de ce séminaire est d’accompagner les doctorant.e.s travaillant sur des pratiques langagières socialement situées, intéressé.e.s par les questions de multi et plurilinguisme, variations et changements linguistiques, contacts de langues, mobilités et construction de l’identité. Une place importante est laissée aux approches méthodologiques et cadres théoriques pertinents (analyse de discours, anthropologie linguistique, linguistique du contact, théories de la variation etc.).

 

Compétences mises en oeuvre : Faire appel aux cadres théoriques et méthodologiques adéquats à l’analyse de pratiques langagières situées en lien avec des problématiques linguistiques et socio-anthropologiques.

Une fois par mois, de 14 à 18h, Campus CNRS de Villejuif, salle 511, bâtiment D (voir : Plan d'accès). Avec le soutien de l’Ecole Doctorale de l’INALCO et de l’UMR SeDyL. Ce séminaire est ouvert aux doctorant.e.s et aux étudiant.e.s de master 2 (mais aucune évaluation ne sera proposée dans le cadre du master LLTS en 2018-2019).

Dates du séminaire en 2018-2019 :  5 octobre 2018, 29 novembre 2018 (exceptionnellement un jeudi), 14 décembre
 


Prochaine séance

Vendredi 5 octobre 2018 de 14h00 à 18h00
Anna Ghimenton (Université Lyon 2) : Étudier les pratiques langagières : un regard rétrospectif

Cette présentation est une réflexion critique sur les différentes approches méthodologiques et perspectives adoptées jusque-là dans mes recherches portant sur les pratiques langagières. Je montre la façon dont mon regard sur les pratiques langagières a évolué selon les questions qui émergeaient du terrain. En effet, les questions portant sur les processus d’acquisition en situation de contact de langues m’ont poussée à prendre en compte l’influence des caractéristiques sociolinguistiques de l’input sur l’acquisition et la socialisation plurilingue. L’élargissement de ces perspectives m’ont permis de voir un même corpus sous différents angles méthodologiques et disciplinaires. Le but de ma présentation est de souligner l’importance des aller-retours entre terrain et questions de recherche, afin de discerner les avantages et les limites de chaque approche.

 

 

Année 2017-2018

Vendredi 13 octobre 2017 de 14h00 à 18h00
Luisa Martín Rojo (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
The interactional construction of social inequality in education settings
From a perspective that understand social inequality as produced by recurrent patterns of unequal distribution of goods, wealth and opportunities, in this seminar we will study how such resources are distributed in and through interaction in education settings. Using empirical data drawn from several research sites in Madrid, Spain, I outline a micro‐ethnographic, task‐oriented approach to understanding the distribution of the linguistic and social resources that are necessary for socio‐educative integration and social mobility through classroom activities. In order to do that, firstly we will examine the processes of capitalization and decapitalization (Martín Rojo 2010, based on Bourdieu’s notion of the convertibility of different forms of capital and social distribution), which will allow us to capture the roles played by the different participants in this unequal distribution of resources. Secondly, we will study how the processes of capitalization and decapitalization take place through a multiplicity of ‘relations of force’. Thus, developing a fluid and dynamic understanding of the microphysics of power and language, which prevent us from locating power in a single point or as exercised in a single direction, we will analyse how different participants can reach different positions within interactions, amplifying or reducing their possibilities of control and resistance. Through these analyses, we will not only capture some of the most recurrent patterns of unequal distribution of resources found in schools, but, in addition, understand how power relations in everyday encounters are fully imbricated with other types of relationships (economic processes, knowledge relationships, gender, ethnic relations, among others).

Vendredi 17 novembre 2017 de 14h00 à 18h00
Thomas Ricento
(University of Calgary)
Immigrants, Language, and Integration into the Canada Labor Market
Changes to the 2002 Immigration and Refugee Protection Act focused on identifying immigrants based on their ability to integrate into the Canadian labor market (CIC 2010). The Federal Skilled Workers Program (FSWP) recognizes factors such as education, experience, and language ability through the awarding of points based on a grid. Yet, many studies have shown that immigrants’ labor market outcomes have declined over the last several decades, even though their average level of education is higher than that of the Canadian-born population (e.g., Hawthorne 2008). The importance of English and French literacy skills has been identified as having significant direct and indirect influences on labor market outcomes (Ferrer, et al. 2006). Yet, research has also shown that difficulty in getting foreign credentials recognized as meeting Canadian standards is a barrier to labor market integration (Schellenberg and Maheux 2007), irrespective of acceptable scores on the Canadian Language Benchmark tool in an official language. In this presentation, I report the findings from a two-year ethnographic study carried out in Calgary, Canada. In Phase II of this project, 6 families were chosen for an in-depth ethnographic study over a 10-month period which included more than 100 hours of recorded interviews. The findings demonstrate both the tenacity of individuals seeking a new life in Canada, and their frustrations as ‘foreigners’ whose cultural capital is not recognized by credentialing authorities and employers. The study also revealed that there is a significant non-alignment between the curriculum of the LINC (Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada) program, assessment of relevant language competencies, and the actual needs of skilled workers seeking to reestablish their professional careers in Canada.
References
CIC (Citizenship and Immigration Canada). (2010). Evaluation of the Federal Skilled Worker Program. Available at: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/evaluation/fswp/.
Ferrer, A., Green, D.A., and Riddell, W.C.. (2006). “The Effect of Literacy on Immigrant Earnings.” Journal of Human Resources 41 (2): 380-410.
Hawthorne, L. (2008). “The Impact of Economic Selection Policy on Labour Market Outcomes for Degree-Qualified Migrants in Canada and Australia.” IRPP Choices 14 (5): 1-50.
Schellenberg, G., and Maheux, H. (2007). “Immigrants’ Perspectives on Their First Four Years in Canada: Highlights from Three Waves of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.” Canadian Social Trends. Catalogue no: 11-008-X. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Vendredi 8 décembre 2017 de 14h00 à 18h00
Modalités d'évaluation du séminaire

Vendredi 19 janvier 2018 de 14h00 à 18h00
Luca Greco
(Université Sorbonne Nouvelle)
Le toucher dans les interactions, l’art et la politique : le mode haptique au centre des pratiques sociales
Toucher le corps, les objets, l’environnement matériel est l’une des modalités les plus puissantes de connaissance du monde et de construction de l’intersubjectivité (Gibson 1962, Merleau-Ponty 1964, Deleuze 1989, Abraira & Ginty 2013). Au croisement de la psychologie, des neurosciences, de la robotique, des sciences sociales et des humanités, le toucher constitue depuis quelques années un véritable champ d’étude au sein duquel les expériences sensorielles sont repensées au prisme des pratiques sociales. Dans ce cadre, la primauté de la vision sur les autres modalités sensorielles est sévèrement interrogée, les frontières entre le corps et l’environnement sont reformulées et le toucher est conçu comme une véritable ressource communicative (Finnegan 2005, M.H. Goodwin 2006, Cekaite 2010, Nishizaka, 2007, Meyer, Streeck, Jordan 2017). 
A partir d’un terrain mené dans un atelier drag king à Bruxelles, d’un corpus constitué de performances ayant comme objet et ressource le toucher et d’un ensemble d’entretiens réalisés avec un groupe de femmes ayant participé aux groupes de conscience dans les années 70 en Italie, je testerai l’hypothèse selon laquelle les pratiques tactiles ont la capacité de construire de nouvelles modalités relationnelles et de rendre compte d’un corps en train de se faire. D’abord, le focus sur les pratiques tactiles dans les ateliers drag king me permettra d’interroger le rôle de l’imagination et des sens dans la construction collective d’un corps genré. Ensuite, l’analyse du toucher dans les arts me donnera accès à la façon dont le toucher entre artistes et spectatrices.teurs au cours d’une performance change radicalement les formats de participation. Enfin, l’analyse d’entretiens ouvrira l’exploration du rôle du toucher dans la construction d’un nouveau langage politique et la fabrication de nouvelles corporéités. L’analyse de ces trois cas exemplaires sera l’occasion d’explorer les modes de constitution d’une « intersubjectivité haptique », en articulant perspectives phénoménologique, interactionnelle et critique. 


Vendredi 9 février de 14h00 à 18h00
Rosina Marquez Reiter (Univ. of Surrey)
Interviews as sites of ideological work: disentangling stance and alignment
Interviews in their various formats whether structured, semi-structured or unstructured, represent one of the most popular methods for collecting data qualitatively. However, the nature of interviews and the type of data they provide has been the topic of debate in sociolinguistics and associated language and social interaction disciplines such as conversation analysis. While it is now acknowledged that they are not mechanical instruments in which the interviewer poses ideologically free questions, the interviewee automatically responds to them and an objective truth on a given topic emerges, their potential for the construction of ideology they provide us with has been overlooked. To this end, a stance-taking perspective that differentiates between stance and alignment, and takes into account the (oscillating) discourse identities that the participants assume in interaction is adopted.
From an understanding of interviews as social practice and based on the interactional analysis of segments from two interviews, the talk maintains that they are, first and foremost, interactionally accomplished situated social encounters. It shows how the discourse identities assumed by the participants throughout the encounter, their aligning actions with respect to these and the views conveyed, can bring into focus aspects of ideology that would be difficult to capture otherwise. The talk thus shows how, through the calibration of stance, alignment and discourse identities, rapport is built between the interview participants. This rapport is not necessarily in line with the maintenance of the professional-personal boundary typically expected of interviewers. It is the result of the interviewer’s involvement with the interviewees’ accounts.

Vendredi 9 mars de 14h00 à 18h00
Jacomine Nortier (Utrecht University)
Development and methodology in Youth Languages: practices, identity and multilingualism
In the first part of my presentation I will sketch the background and history of Dutch youth languages (although the term youth languages is not used and accepted by all researchers studying the phenomenon) since the nineteen nineties. Beside linguistic characteristics, matters of ethnicity, identity, language play and polylanguaging or translanguaging will be addressed. In interaction with the audience I hope we will be able to make a comparison between the Dutch and French situations.
Furthermore, I will discuss the pros and cons of collecting data from social media instead of ‘good old’ methods like recording and transcribing real-life conversations. I will argue that the use of Internet data cannot fully replace real-life data but it creates possibilities to study identity work – and play – that have not been possible before. Users of social media have rapidly developed new skills and we, as researchers, will have to follow from a distance in order to understand. By way of illustration: a twenty-five-year-old native French male Internet user can pretend to be a fifteen-year-old Senegalese girl living in the banlieue if he knows the linguistic means and uses the right nickname. Such identity changes are impossible in real-life. What are the consequences of these changes?
Participants are asked, if possible, to bring data from the Internet to support the readings which will be discussed during the seminar: can you find any metalinguistic comments on the use of French youth languages, Verlan, etc.? Or illustrations of topics from the readings? Examples can be found on Facebook, in YouTube comments, just to mention two possibilities.
Lectures préparatoires :
Nortier, J.M. (2017). Online metalinguistic comments and gender roles in Multilingual Youth Speech Styles & Practices among Moroccan girls and women in the Netherlands. Applied Linguistics Review (26 p.).
Nortier, J.M. (2018). Language and Identity Practices among Multilingual Western European Youths. Linguistics and Language Compass.

Vendredi 13 avril de 14h00 à 18h00 (réservée aux étudiant.e.s de M2)
L'intervention prévue d'Anna Ghimenton est reportée au 12 octobre 2018 en raison des grèves

Anna Ghimenton
(Université Lumière Lyon 2, UMR 5596 DDL ; LABEX ASLAN)
Étudier les pratiques langagières : un regard rétrospectif

Cette présentation est une réflexion critique sur les différentes approches méthodologiques et perspectives adoptées jusque-là dans mes recherches portant sur les pratiques langagières. Je montre la façon dont mon regard sur les pratiques langagières a évolué selon les questions qui émergeaient du terrain. En effet, les questions portant sur les processus d’acquisition en situation de contact de langues m’ont poussée à prendre en compte l’influence des caractéristiques sociolinguistiques de l’input sur l’acquisition et la socialisation plurilingue. L’élargissement de ces perspectives m’ont permis de voir un même corpus sous différents angles méthodologiques et disciplinaires. Le but de ma présentation est de souligner l’importance des aller-retours entre terrain et questions de recherche, afin de discerner les avantages et les limites de chaque approche.

Vendredi 18 mai de 14h00 à 18h00
Caroline Kerfoot(Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University)
Languaging race and ethnicity: reconstructing raciolinguistic orders in post-apartheid schools
The postracial in contemporary conditions is an aspiration but simultaneously a descriptor for a new set of racial arrangements shaped by shifts in the political economy and broader geopolitics.  This paper analyses the ways in which such racial arrangements in postapartheid South Africa are refracted, subverted, and reconstructed in interactions by young students in playgrounds on the periphery of Cape Town.

Work within linguistic anthropology and linguistic ethnography has shown that categories such as race, ethnicity, and class are interactional achievements grounded in social contexts and evolving with them (e.g. Alim, Rickford & Ball 2016,  Bucholtz 1999, Chun 2011, Hill 1993, Ibrahim 2009, Urciuoli 1996). From this perspective, language and other identities are performed and negotiated in interaction. Influenced by both local contexts and wider ideologies in circulation, interactants align with, contest, or transform social categories of belonging. In these processes, racialised indexicalities and the raciolinguistic orders they construct are reworked. Most South African studies of school integration have focused on historically white schools as sites for engagement with ideologies of whiteness. In the schools studied here, however, the white ‘Other’ is absent from the site, thus relations of domination and subordination tend to be less asymmetrical and ideologies of language, legitimacy, and belonging less fixed.
Drawing on two six-year Linguistic Ethnographies using observations, interviews, and recorded peer interactions, this paper illuminates encounters across difference among multilingual 10-12 year olds in two primary schools. Findings show how dynamic new multilingual practices result in frictions but also new forms of conviviality. They illuminate in particular how youngsters use ‘strategically deployable shifters’ (Urciuoli 2003) to construct new raciolinguistic orders, reworking historical divisions through resignifying racial or ethnic categories and subverting the racialised indexicalities operating in the local social field, albeit not always unproblematically. Findings thus illustrate the potential of such fluid, heteroglossic contexts to inform models of cultural production, contributing to ‘a symbolic enlargement of knowledges, practices and agents’ (Santos 2012, 56) and perhaps contributing to a sociolinguistics of the South.
References

Alim, H. S., Rickford, J. R., & Ball, A. F. (Eds.). 2016. Raciolinguistics: How language shapes our ideas about race. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bucholtz, M. 1999. You Da Man: Narrating the Racial Other in the Production of White Masculinity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3 (4): 443–460.
Chun, E., 2011. Reading race beyond black and white. Discourse & Society 22, 403–421.
Hill, Jane H. 2008. Language, Race, and White Public Space. American Anthropologist 100 (3): 680–89.
Ibrahim, A., 2009. Operating under erasure: Race/language/identity, in: Kubota, R., Lin, A.M.Y. (Eds.), Race, Culture, and Identities in Second Language Education: Exploring Critically Engaged Practice. Routledge, pp. 176–194.
Santos, B. de S. 2012. Public Sphere and Epistemologies of the South. Africa Development XXXVII: 43–67.
Urciuoli, B., 1996. Exposing Prejudice: Puerto Rican Experiences Of Language, Race, And Class. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo.
Urciuoli, B. 2003. Excellence, leadership, skills, diversity: marketing liberal arts education. Language & Communication 23, 385–408.

Vendredi 8 juin de 14h00 à 18h00
Constantine Nacassis (Université de Chicago)
Citing and Being
Writers such as Bateson (1955/1972), Bakhtin (1982), Voloshinov (1986), Austin (1962), Goffman (1974, 1981), and Derrida (1988) (among others; e.g., Frege [1892/1980], Banfield [1978], Butler [1997], Lee [1997]) have all various reflected, and reanalyzed, the transformative semiotics of citational acts (through analytics such as metacommunication, voicing / dialogicality, performativity, framing/footing, iteration/citationality, represented speech and thought, etc.). Particularly important for these authors are the ontological implications of citational acts, the ways in which their reflexive semiotics can come to bracket and decenter the ontic status of the signs and objects they cite (e.g., for Frege reference, for Austin and Bateson truth conditionality [sense and reference], for Bakthin and Voloshinov monologic language, for Goffman the speaker, for Derrida presence and being; see Lucy 1993; Lee 1997; Nakassis 2012, 2013a, 2013b, 2016a).
In this paper, I explore the (meta)semiotics of this class of reflexive acts, tracing out the performative and ontological implications of their pragmatics. I focus on two particular ontologies—denotational code (viz. “language”) and the cinematic image—as they are wrought and transformed through citational framings of various sorts. The first case study engages the classic literature on codemixing to show how strategies of voicing and footing among post-colonial south Indian youth are enacted through a careful, and always tenuous and negotiated, alchemy of named/enregistered linguistic “codes” (in the instance, “Tamil” and “English”) whose pragmatics turns precisely on the bracketing and blurring of the lines between the very languages (and, by implication, political dispensations: Dravidianist and late capitalist) they citationally invoke. As I suggest, such linguistic (but also sartorial) practices put the very concept of language under erasure (Nakassis 2016a). The second case study turns to contemporary Tamil cinema, in particular, a scene from the 2011 film, Mankatha where one character/actor slaps another. I show how the entextualization of this image-text/act (Silverstein and Urban 1996) turns on what film scholars have called looking structures (Pasolini 1965/1988; Mulvey 1975; Willemen 1994; cf. “voicing structures”) as they are embedded within particular production formats and participation frameworks (as Goffman called them). Ethnographic analysis among the films’ makers and fans reveal divergent entextualizations of this scene that turn, ultimately, on distinct ontological and political formulations of what a film image “is” (Bazin 1967/2004; Morgan 2006; Nakassis 2017). (Indeed, at stake is the political nature of the image, vacillating between a bourgeois realism authorially helmed by a director and a populist performativity grounded in the auratic charisma of a hero-star.) Such distinct image ontologies presuppose, as I show, distinct production formats, just as they entail an ontic “heteroglossia” of the image.
The paper concludes by reflecting on the semiotics of citationality and its implications regarding questions of being. Not simply (or even primarily) metaphysical, such implications have urgent methodological and analytic (i.e., pragmaticist [Peirce 1907/1998]) stakes; indeed, they (i) call into question and mandate a rethinking of our basic categories of analysis (language, code, mixing, text, image, film, author/speaker, indexicality, etc.) (Nakassis 2016a, 2018), (ii) suggest the need for a more capacious conceptualization of the object of linguistic anthropological study (beyond the question of “language” or “interaction”; Nakassis 2016a), and (iii) demand a thorough integration of ethnographic methodology with semiotic theory.

Année 2016-2017

Vendredi 14 octobre 2016 de 14h00 à 18h00
Li Wei, UCL Institute of Education, University College London
Translanguaging as a theory of language: some conceptual and methodological considerations
The notion of Translanguaging has, in the last ten years or so, attracted a considerable amount of attention in the applied linguistics community. On the whole, it has been accepted as a useful pedagogical approach to language education, particularly bilingual education. Its significance as a theoretical concept, especially as a theory of Language, remains controversial. Some question its added value compared to the more established concepts such as code-switching. In this article, I focus on Translanguaging as a theory of Language and discuss the theoretical motivations behind the concept and the methodological challenges in its application to real data. I contextualise Translanguaging in the debate over the Modularity of Mind hypothesis and the multilingual language users’ Symbolic and Multi-Competence. One particular aspect of multilingual language users’ social interaction that I want to emphasize is the multi-modal and multi-sensory nature. Drawing examples from everyday social interactions amongst the Chinese and Polish diasporic communities in Britain, I aim to show what can be gained by adapting the Translanguaging approach rather than the traditional code-switching approach, as well as how the notion of Language can be handled in empirical analyses from a Translanguaging perspective. In doing so, I respond to some of the criticisms levelled by theoretical linguists against the notion of Translanguaging and point out the muddles in the logic of arguments hitherto presented. To answer Kramsch’s call for a practice-based theory of language, I suggest that Translanguaging would be a strong candidate and would make a key contribution to theory building in applied linguistics. In the meantime, I also highlight the necessity to bridge the artificial, and ideological, divide between the socio-cultural and what’s been called the ‘cognitive’, approaches to dynamic multilingual practices.

Séance du 18 novembre :
Bibliographie et modalités d'évaluation du séminaire

Séance du 2 décembre :
Cécile Van den Avenne
(ENS Lyon)
Textes et voix. Pour une approche philologique des pratiques langagières en contexte colonial
Comment reconstituer et décrire des pratiques langagières anciennes, à laquelle nous n'avons plus accès que par des écrits, témoignages directs ou indirects d'une interaction définitivement perdue ? En partant de cette question, ma présentation abordera des questions d'épistémologie (penser les liens entre histoire et sociolinguistique/anthropologie linguistique), des questions de méthode (quel corpus, quelles traces textuelles ? comment les lire et les interpréter ?), tout en exemplifiant à partir d'un « terrain » que je pratique depuis maintenant une dizaine d'année : celui des archives coloniales, et d'un objet : les pratiques langagières en contexte de contact colonial, en Afrique de l'Ouest.
Parce que je travaille sur des textes anciens, dont il m'est très difficile de connaître les conditions de production, j'emprunte à des démarches d'historiens, que ce soit la méthode indiciaire, telle que théorisée par Carlo Ginzburg par exemple, la lecture « against the grain », pour retrouver la voix des dominés, préconisé par des chercheurs spécialistes de la période coloniale (par exemple dans les travaux des Comaroff, 1991), ou au contraire « along the grain » lorsqu'il s'agit de saisir les logiques propres aux archives coloniales (comme dans les travaux d'Ann Stoler, ), ou, dans des démarches féministes, postcoloniales, ou l'archéologie de la performance, proposée par l'historienne Anne Clément (2012). Je qualifie cette méthode de « philologique », reprenant un adjectif qu'utilise l'anthropologue Johannes Fabien (Fabian 1991a), pour caractériser le type de recherche qu'il a mené sur la  pratique du swahili en contexte colonial au Congo. Une approche philologique consiste, écrit-il, à « prêter attention aux petits indices qui peuvent être considéré comme des liens entre la description linguistique et les pratiques communicatives » (« small clues which can be regarded as links between linguistic description and communicative practices », Fabian, 1991 : 40, ma traduction). Cette méthode est sous-tendue par une interrogation : comment, à partir d'un texte écrit, « remonter » à ce que fut la performance orale et l'interaction réelle qui en est le point d'origine ?
J'exemplifiera ma méthode en proposant une lecture de différents textes, et plus particulièrement des carnets d'exploration de Louis-Gustave Binger (1856-1936).  Il les rédigea entre 1887 et 1889 tout au long d'une grande expédition d'exploration, qui lui fit parcourir près de 4000 kilomètres entre Bamako au Soudan (actuel Mali) et Grand Bassam, sur la côte de l'actuelle Côte d'Ivoire. Ces carnets sont sont la trace d'une activité d'écriture prise dans le quotidien d'une expédition d'exploration coloniale, et sont précieux pour des chercheurs s'intéressant au contact colonial et aux écrits produits par le contact colonial. La caractéristique peut-ê